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On the Origin of Gravity and the Laws of Newton

Erik Verlinde |

## Abstract

Starting from 1st principles and general assumptions Newton's law of gravitation is shown to arise naturally and unavoidably in a theory in which space is emergent through a holographic scenario. Gravity is explained as an entropic force caused by changes in the information associated with the positions of material bodies. A relativistic generalization of the presented arguments directly leads to the Einstein equations. When space is emergent even Newton's law of inertia needs to be explained. The equivalence principle leads us to conclude that it is actually this law of inertia whose origin is entropic.

## Basic Idea

- Laws of Newton lead to Black Hole Thermodynamics and the holographic principle
- Holographic principle must lead to Newton's laws
- Newton's law of Gravity (and Gravity in general) is an emergent phenomena much like Hooke's law

## Entropic force

From the canonical partition function

we can derive

which for polymers gives Hooke's law

## Background

Black hole "thermodynamics" Bardeen, Cater, and Hawking 1973

black hole mass | |

black hole surface area | |

black hole surface gravity | |

horizon angular velocity | |

black hole angular momentum | |

red shifted chemical potential | |

red shifted temperature |

Correspondence between Temperature and Entropy with surface gravity and area

Zeroth Law | constant over horizon for stationary black hole | is constant for a body in thermal equilibrium |

First Law | ||

Second Law | ||

Third Law |

Black hole 'entropy'

where

Bekenstein's thought experiment… When lowering a particle into a black hole, information about the particle is lost, so entropy of black hole should increase. This corresponds to an increase in area of

and an entropy increase of

If we use the reduced compton radius for the particle we get

*1 bit of information lost as the particle merges with the black hole*

If we assume that this change in energy occurs linearly over the particle's compton radius then we have

and if we calculate the entropic force:

we have

** For a black hole this entropy is presumably stored on the horizon - 1 bit for every square planck length - holographic principle**

### Hawking radiation

where

so we have

### Unruh effect: an observer in an accelerated frame experiences a non zero vacuum temperature

Verlinde supposes that the entropy is stored on a holographic screen bounding emerged part of space…

which leads to an entropic force

Newton's 2nd law!

## What about gravitational force around a non-black hole?

If we assume that the number of degrees of freedom is proportional to the area of the enclosed space like an event horizon

and that the temperature is determined by the equipartition rule

and that the total energy is just the enclosed rest mass

we recover

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